D-Band CMOS Power Amplifiers: Challenges, State-of-the-Art, Technological Limitations and Trends


  • Antoine Lhomel IMS Lab - France
  • François Rivet IMS Laboratory - France
  • Nathalie Deltimple IMS Laboratory - France




D-Band, CMOS Power Amplifier (PA), sub-terahertz (sub-THz), unilateral power gain (U), gain-boosting


To achieve ultra-high-speed wireless communications, millimeter-wave bands have emerged as bands of interest for these new applications. However, a technological breakthrough linked to power amplifiers has appeared. Indeed, working near the maximum oscillation frequency of the transistor leads to low intrinsic gain and poor efficiency for these devices. This paper presents an overview of sub-terahertz CMOS power amplifiers with a focus on gain enhancement techniques. The paper will also feature state-of-the-art D-Band CMOS power amplifier architectures. The goal is to present how the gain enhancement techniques are used in a complete architecture. Based on the three techniques and the state-of-the-art presented in the paper, a focus on three architectures is proposed. The aim is to highlight the benefits of each method in the design. The final part summarizes the paper and opens up future perspectives and trends identified through the paper.






Special Issue on Technological Trends for Future Radiofrequency Circuits and Systems. Guest Editors: André Augusto Mariano (GICS-UFPR-Brazil) and François Rivet (IMS Lab - France)